I've never been great at smoking weed. While some lucky smokers can come home, spark up a fatty and enjoy the benefits of ancient plant. Cannabis users are often portrayed as unmotivated, lazy “stoners.” But research into why people use cannabis paints a different picture. It shows that most. According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 30 percent of young adults (between the ages of 18 and 25) used marijuana in the.
THC?: Why Choose
Data from the Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research WONDER database of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicate that in there were 16, deaths in the United States due to accidental poisoning by and exposure to narcotics and psychodysleptics—a broad category that includes cannabis as well as cocaine, heroin, codeine, morphine, and several other narcotics CDC, b ; WHO, Due, in part, to the limitations of current surveillance tools and medical record coding systems, there is a limited amount of more comprehensive and precise data on the association between cannabis use and overdose injury or death.
Meanwhile, the increasing availability, diversity, and potency of cannabis products create the potential for an increased risk of adverse health effects related to cannabis use, including overdose injury and death.
Accidental ingestion of cannabis by young children can result in respiratory failure and coma, as noted by several case reports Amirav et al.
Thus, the emerging cannabis products market creates the potential for an increased risk of cannabis-related overdose injury or death, while limitations in the current clinical and public health surveillance system hinder efforts to detect, characterize, and respond to this population health issue. This section reviews the available evidence on the association between cannabis use and overdose injury and death and discusses possible actions to improve the state of research on this health endpoint.
The committee did not identify a good- or fair-quality systematic review that reported on the association between cannabis use and overdose injuries or death. The committee identified a number of studies that directly or indirectly reported on the association between acute cannabis intoxication and overdose death in either adults or children. An analysis of the National Poison Data Systems database involving more than 2 million human exposure cases in did not list cannabis among the top causes of death related to pharmaceutical products Dart et al.
Cannabis was not found to be the main cause of death in any of the fatal intoxications among drug addicts submitted for medico-legal autopsy and toxicological analysis in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, or Sweden in either or Simonsen et al. Nonetheless, tetrahydrocannabinol was commonly identified 21 percent to 38 percent of cases in the blood samples of these fatal intoxications. Case reports on cannabis-related deaths are also uncommon.
In Colorado, cannabis intoxication was determined to be a chief contributing factor in the death by trauma of a teenager who jumped from a fourth-floor balcony after ingesting a cookie containing 65 mg of THC Hancock-Allen et al.
Colorado law states that a single-serving edible cannabis product should contain no more than 10 mg of THC; however, currently available edible cannabis products such as cookies and brownies, which are otherwise generally understood as single-serving products, may contain as much as mg or 10 servings of THC. The authors noted that any relationship between cannabis exposure and the patient's symptoms or outcome was unclear. Although presented here for discussion, these case reports did not inform the committee's conclusions on the association between cannabis use and overdose death.
By comparison with the minimal literature on cannabis-related overdose death in adults or children, several studies reported on potentially serious symptoms associated with cannabis exposure in pediatric populations. Le Garrec et al. All of the children had central nervous system symptoms, including drowsiness and coma, and three were intubated and placed on mechanical ventilation for less than 24 hours. Between and , an Arizona poison control center received 49 calls related to unintentional medical marijuana ingestions among children ages 7 years and younger Lovecchio and Heise, Among the 39 records with complete information, the most commonly reported symptoms were lethargy 48 percent of cases , an inability to walk 53 percent , coma 10 percent , and vomiting 21 percent.
These and other symptoms, including respiratory depression and aspiration pneumonia, underscore the importance of observation in children suspected or known to have unintentionally ingested cannabis.
Although presented here for discussion, these case series were published as letters in scientific journals and therefore did not inform the committee's conclusions on the association between cannabis use and overdose injuries. These findings are supported by retrospective reviews and cohort studies. Out of 1, unintentional ingestions, only 14 were cannabis related, of which 13 were observed in the emergency room or admitted to the hospital.
Symptoms included lethargy, ataxia, dizziness, and respiratory insufficiency. The proportion of unintentional ingestions that were cannabis related increased from 0 percent in — to 2.
Department of Justice to no longer prosecute users and suppliers of cannabis who act in accordance with state laws. In a subsequent study, Wang et al. The average number of cannabis-related calls per 1, calls to the poison center increased significantly from 0. Between these same periods, the average number of cannabis-related emergency department visits per 1, visits also increased, though nonsignificantly, from 4.
Out of 81 cases received by the children's hospital, 40 percent were observed in the emergency department, 22 were admitted to an inpatient ward or the intensive care unit, and 2 required respiratory support. Most exposures were unintentional The annual rate of exposures increased over time, from a national average of 4. During the same period, the increase in the annual rate of exposures among states that had legalized medical cannabis prior to was significant, at Collectively, these findings indicate that state-based legalization of cannabis is associated with a subsequent increase in pediatric cannabis exposures in those states.
A similar trend emerges when comparing exposure rates among states where cannabis is legal to exposure rates in states where it is not. Among children unintentionally exposed to cannabis, those living in states where cannabis was legalized before were more likely to be evaluated in a health care facility OR, 1.
Accounting for 78 percent of all incidents, ingestion was the most common route of unintentional pediatric exposure. Another study found that the mean number of calls to poison control centers for unintentional pediatric cannabis exposures increased by 34 percent per year between and —a significant increase that was also significantly greater than the 19 percent annual increase in cannabis-related calls received by poison control centers throughout the rest of the United States during that same period Wang et al.
Informed, in part, by these and other findings, a special committee of the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment found moderate evidence that more unintentional pediatric cannabis exposures have occurred in states with increased legal access to cannabis and that the exposures can lead to significant clinical effects requiring medical attention CDPHE, The committee identified few studies that report on the association between cannabis use and overdose death.
Cannabis was not identified as a main cause in the intoxication deaths of drug addicts in five Nordic countries or a top cause of U. However, studies on the risks to Nordic populations posed by cannabis products available in those countries may not reflect the risks to U. Data from the National Poison Data System indicate that death was the outcome in a small number of single-substance exposures to cannabis; however, lacking further information, it is not possible to determine whether and to what extent cannabis contributed to these deaths.
Case reports implicate acute cannabis intoxication in one accidental death and suggest that cannabis use may pose a risk for sudden cardiac death. However, these individual case reports cannot be used to infer a general association between cannabis use and overdose deaths.
Overall, the committee identified no study in which cannabis was determined to be the direct cause of overdose death. Several studies report that unintentional pediatric cannabis exposure is associated with potentially serious symptoms, including respiratory depression or failure, tachycardia and other cardiovascular symptoms, and temporary coma.
Similar symptoms were not reported in adults exposed to cannabis. Most study limitations were related to the origin, quality, and completeness of data. For example, Wang et al. Search strategies employed in retrospective reviews of records from hospitals and poison centers may fail to capture all pertinent records, and some records may be incomplete Wang et al.
Data from poison centers will capture only the subset of cannabis-related overdose injuries or deaths that resulted in a call to a poison center and may overrepresent serious cases or cases from states where cannabis is legal Wang et al. Moreover, Onders et al. This chapter discussed the associations between cannabis use and all-cause mortality, occupational injury, motor vehicle crash, and death and injury due to overdose.
Box provides a summary of the conclusions from this chapter. Notably, the committee found substantial evidence of a statistical association between cannabis use and motor vehicle crashes.
These findings suggest the need for research to further specify the strength of this association and to identify any mediating factors, as well as the need for broader surveillance efforts to track patterns of cannabis use, especially where cannabis use may pose risks to personal and public health.
Apart from illuminating potential research objectives, these findings also suggest enacting policies such as making DUIC a direct target for both policy and policing. Such efforts could include checkpoints for DUIC in conjunction with those for sobriety, the development of point-of-care kits for DUIC testing, and a consideration of zero tolerance laws.
These proposals find parallels in policies that restrict or prohibit the use of alcohol while driving, and there is both domestic and international precedent for policing the use of cannabis while operating motor vehicles. For example, an ecological study found a net reduction in traffic crashes associated with the introduction of laws for medical cannabis use Anderson et al.
The committee also found moderate evidence of a statistical association between cannabis use and an increased risk of overdose injuries among pediatric populations in states in where cannabis is legal. The potential risks associated with the use of highly potent cannabis products suggest a need for public health policies, such as regulations that require packaging for cannabis products to include child-focused safety features, warnings that ingested cannabis can have different effects from smoked cannabis, and guidance on how to respond to potential emergencies.
Again, precedents for such policies exist. For example, Colorado regulations require that medical and retail cannabis products be sold in packages that are child-resistant, that list the potency of the product in mg of THC and cannabidiol, and that contain several warning statements, including the direction to keep the product out of the reach of children.
The available evidence was insufficient to draw any conclusions regarding the association between cannabis use and occupational injury or all-cause mortality. The high economic and social costs associated with occupational injuries in this country suggest the need for further research to determine whether these injuries are associated with cannabis use. In pursuing this research, it will be important to determine which individual and work-related factors protect against, or expose workers to, the risk of injury.
Emerging evidence suggests that access to legal cannabis can increase the incidence of accidental cannabis ingestion among pediatric populations and that such ingestion can lead to depressed respiratory function and other symptoms of overdose. If state-level changes in cannabis policy continue to make cannabis more accessible, there will be an increased need for research to assess the prevalence of injuries and death due to cannabis overdose, especially among children and other vulnerable populations.
The review also addressed the association between cannabis use and health endpoints that are often or always fatal, such as motor vehicle accidents, cancer, and suicide. These health endpoints are not reviewed in this section, as they are discussed elsewhere in the report.
These percentages correspond to 17,, and 5,, U. ORs for these variables ranged from 1. Total includes all unintentional injuries that occurred on a public road or highway and were traffic related and that resulted in an emergency department visit CDC, a.
Colorado Code of Regulations. Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Chapter Highlights Cannabis use prior to driving increases the risk of being involved in a motor vehicle accident.
In states where cannabis use is legal, there is increased risk of unintentional cannabis overdose injuries among children. It is unclear whether and how cannabis use is associated with all-cause mortality or with occupational injury. Systematic Reviews Calabria et al. Primary Literature Muhuri and Gfroerer assessed the risk of all-cause mortality associated with the use of cannabis and other illegal drugs among 20, adults over a year follow-up period.
Discussion of Findings Sidney et al. Systematic Review The committee did not identify a good- or fair-quality systematic review that reported on the association between cannabis use and occupational injury.
Primary Literature The committee identified six primary literature articles addressing the association between cannabis use and occupational injury. Discussion of Findings Although Wadsworth et al. Systematic Reviews The committee identified a total of six systematic reviews of fair or good quality that summarized the association between driving under the influence of cannabis DUIC and MVCs Asbridge et al.
Primary Literature The committee did not identify any relevant, good-quality primary literature that reported on the association between cannabis use and motor vehicle crashes and were published subsequent to the data collection period of the most recently published good- or fair-quality systematic review addressing the research question.
Discussion of Findings Two important methodological limitations of Rogeberg and Elvik were noted by other researchers Gjerde and Morland, Systematic Reviews The committee did not identify a good- or fair-quality systematic review that reported on the association between cannabis use and overdose injuries or death. Primary Literature The committee identified a number of studies that directly or indirectly reported on the association between acute cannabis intoxication and overdose death in either adults or children.
Discussion of Findings The committee identified few studies that report on the association between cannabis use and overdose death. There is a need for long-term, well-designed cohort studies to determine the association between cannabis use and all-cause and cause-specific mortality among large, representative populations.
These studies will need to assess the effects of the various characteristics of cannabis use e. The association between cannabis use and occupational injury needs to be explored across a broad range of regions, populations, workplace settings, workplace practices e.
There is a need for research to evaluate whether and how the form of cannabis e. There is a need for well-designed surveillance studies to determine the prevalence of acute cannabis use and intoxication among U. Research is also needed to explore how patterns of cannabis use, the degree of acute cannabis intoxication, and geographic and demographic variables affect MVC incidence, driver and passenger outcomes, and driver safety and performance.
Finally, research is needed to identify the causal channels through which cannabis use may adversely or therapeutically affect MVC risk. There is a need for research on the association between cannabis use and injury and mortality among unstudied and understudied demographic groups, such as minority groups, working adolescents, and employed older populations. SUMMARY This chapter discussed the associations between cannabis use and all-cause mortality, occupational injury, motor vehicle crash, and death and injury due to overdose.
Association between self-reports of being high and perceptions about the safety of drugged and drunk driving. Decriminalization of cannabis-potential risks for children? Medical marijuana laws, traffic fatalities, and alcohol consumption. The Journal of Law and Economics. Andreasson S, Allebeck P. Cannabis and mortality among young men: A longitudinal study of Swedish conscripts. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine. Appelboam A, Oades PJ. Coma due to cannabis toxicity in an infant. European Journal of Emergency Medicine.
Acute cannabis consumption and motor vehicle collision risk: Systematic review of observational studies and meta-analysis. PMC ] [ PubMed: Driving under the influence of alcohol, marijuana, and alcohol and marijuana combined among persons aged years—United States, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. The impact of cannabis on driving. Canadian Journal of Public Health. Health burden and medical costs of nonfatal injuries to motor vehicle occupants—United States, Bergeron J, Paquette M.
Relationships between frequency of driving under the influence of cannabis, self-reported reckless driving and risk-taking behavior observed in a driving simulator. Journal of Safety Research. Traffic Safety Facts Research Note. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; Results of the national roadside survey of alcohol and drug use by drivers.
DOT HS Employer-reported workplace injuries and illnesses— Bureau of Labor Statistics; Injuries, illnesses, and fatalities: Revisions to the census of fatal occupational injuries CFOI. Boorman M, Owens K. The Victorian legislative framework for the random testing drivers at the roadside for the presence of illicit drugs: An evaluation of the characteristics of drivers detected from to Does cannabis use increase the risk of death?
Systematic review of epidemiological evidence on adverse effects of cannabis use. Drug and Alcohol Review. Prolonged coma in a child due to hashish ingestion with quantitation of thc metabolites in urine. Journal of Emergency Medicine. State-specific costs of motor vehicle crash deaths. Nonfatal injury reports, About underlying cause of death, Monitoring health concerns related to marijuana use in Colorado: Compton RP, Berning A.
Drug and alcohol crash risk. Poisoning in the United States: Annals of Emergency Medicine. Global burden of disease attributable to illicit drug use and dependence: Findings from the global burden of disease study Phase I and II cannabinoid disposition in blood and plasma of occasional and frequent smokers following controlled smoked cannabis.
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Gjerde H, Morland J. Risk for involvement in road traffic crash during acute cannabis intoxication. Notes from the field: Death following ingestion of an edible marijuana product—Colorado, March Cannabis effects on driving skills. Hoffmann J, Larison C. Drug use, workplace accidents and employee turnover.
Journal of Drug Issues. The burden of disease attributable to cannabis use in Canada in IOM Institute of Medicine. Assessing the science base. National Academy Press; Kaestner R, Grossman M. Wages, workers' compensation benefits, and drug use: Indirect evidence of the effect of drugs on workplace accidents. Since cannabis has a low risk for physical addiction, most people are not compelled to continue to use it.
Instead, people use cannabis when they perceive its effects are beneficial. People all over the world have used cannabis for thousands of years—for social, medical and spiritual reasons.
Sometimes these reasons are distinct, but often they overlap. I enjoy art, music, philosophy and meditation while intoxicated.
Going to a museum is one of my favourite activities under [the] influence. So, just the same as a person would use salt to enhance a bland soup or what have you, smoking weed can make things more intense and enjoyable The social use of cannabis includes its use for recreation, socializing and generally improving quality of life.
Most people who use cannabis today do so for these reasons. Historical records also point to the social uses of cannabis. Ancient Hindus in India were against the use of alcohol, but accepted social cannabis use. In ancient Rome, wealthy people finished banquets with a cannabis-seed dessert that was known for the good feeling it caused.
At ancient Indian weddings, cannabis bhang was served for good luck and as a sign of hospitality. Today, people often use cannabis for specific activities and occasions.
When used properly, it helps some to relax and concentrate, making many activities more enjoyable. Eating, listening to music, socializing, watching movies, playing sports, having sex and being creative are some things people say cannabis helps them to enjoy more. Sometimes people also use it to make mundane tasks like chores more fun. And certain strains work better for the pain. Like people who use cannabis for social reasons, people who use cannabis for medical reasons also use it to improve their quality of life.
Medical use is linked to managing physical and mental problems and to preserving health. Cannabis has been used medically for thousands of years.
The Ebers Papyrus, an ancient Egyptian medical text, also mentions cannabis. It was written in BCE and is one of the oldest pharmaceutical works known. In Canada, cannabis was used as a medicine until it was added to a list of controlled substances in The court ruled that people should not have to choose between their liberty and their health because both are protected in the constitution.
Currently, there are many barriers to the Health Canada program. Also, the options for a legal supply of cannabis are limited. As a result, only about 3, people have licences at this time. Cannabis is used to treat many medical conditions and symptoms. It is effective in treating nausea, loss of appetite, pain, anxiety, insomnia, inflammation and muscle spasms. These symptoms are often part of physical or mental conditions. Sometimes cannabis is more effective than pharmaceutical drugs and has fewer negative side effects.
Some people use cannabis to help them cope with the side effects of, or to replace, these medications. Others use cannabis to deal with withdrawal symptoms from other legal or illegal drugs. A lot of my religious experiences have actually come through marijuana.
It is just that connection, an awareness of yourself, I think, and that you are part of nature I like to use it for learning and to gain knowledge on how to treat people and how to live Spiritual well-being is widely accepted as an important part of overall health.
Spiritual use of cannabis relates to seeking a sense of meaning, enlightenment and connection. Cannabis has a rich history of spiritual use. It is listed as one of the five holy plants in the Atharvaveda, a sacred Indian text from the second millennium BCE.
The Scythians, who lived in what is now Eastern Europe, used cannabis at funerals to pay respect to departed leaders.
How to Help a Marijuana Addict
To date, all of the positive evidence supporting the use of medical marijuana in humans has come from studies of the entire plant or experimental investigations . So far, researchers haven't conducted enough large-scale clinical trials that show that the benefits of the marijuana plant (as opposed to its cannabinoid. Maybe you've heard about the benefits of vaping cannabis, or perhaps you've tried smoking but would prefer a healthier alternative. Perhaps.