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The benefit of dry carpet cleaning, over wet solutions, is that dry chemical compounds don't attract dirt, like dried shampoo. But it's very difficult to remove all residues, the residues can cause allergies and biological compounds may cause discolourations on carpets. For commercial applications, a specially designed cylindrical counter-rotating brushing system is used, without a vacuum cleaner. Machine scrubbing is more typical, in that hand scrubbing generally cleans only the top third of carpet.
In the s, new polymers began literally encapsulating crystallizing soil particles into dry residues on contact. Surfactant detergent molecules and emulsified soils which escape being rinsed away, remain in the fibre and continue to attract soiling, causing the condition of the carpet to degenerate; often re-soiling faster than before it was subjected to the cleaning process.
Encapsulators are speciality detergent polymers which become part of the detergent system. As drying occurs min. In addition to binding the detergent and soil residues the encapsulation chemistry coats the clean fibre with the same brittle film. As this brittle film "breaks away" and more soil is removed, the appearance of the fibre improves as opposed to soiling more rapidly.
Products which also employ fluorochemical technology, display dramatically extended anti re-soiling time periods. Cleaning solution is applied by rotary machine, brush applicator, or compression sprayer. Dry residue is vacuumable immediately min.
After a cleaning product is deposited onto the surface as mist, a round buffer or "bonnet" scrubs the mixture with a rotating motion. This industry machine resembles a floor buffer, with an absorbent spin or oscillating pad that attracts soil and is rinsed or replaced repeatedly. The bonnet method is not strictly dry-cleaning. To reduce pile distortion, the absorbent bonnet should be kept well-lubricated with cleaning solution.
It is not recommended to dunk the bonnet in a bucket of cleaning solution and then wring it out with a mop-bucket wringer, as this will make the bonnet too wet.
It is important to change or turn the bonnet early, as bonnets can become filled with soil in just a few hundred square feet. Once loaded with soil, the bonnet will not hold any more; instead, it simply moves the soil from one area to another. An overly wet bonnet also deposits residues that attract soils when they are dry, creating the need to clean more often. It is recommended for robust and not for high floor carpet, it swirls the floor.
It distorts pile and grinds dirt deeper in carpet fiber, and also has an abrasive effect. When there is a large amount of foreign material in the carpet, extraction with a wet process may be needed. Normally, the spin-bonnet method may not be as capable of sanitizing carpet fibers due to the lack of hot water, for this a special thermo machine is needed, here the buffing machine is equipped with a heating, to heat up the bonnet, but a post-cleaning application of an antimicrobial agent is used to make up for this.
A small amount of water is required with spin-bonnet carpet cleaning. However, bonnet cleaning is not the best mechanism for completely removing the chemical that is pre-sprayed onto a carpet. It is recommended that only surfactant free or encapsulating products are used.
Wet shampoo cleaning with rotary machines, followed by thorough wet vacuuming, was widespread until about the s, but industry perception of shampoo cleaning changed with the advent of encapsulation. Hot-water extraction, also regarded as preferable by all manufacturers, had not been introduced either.
Wet shampoos were once formulated from coconut oil soaps; wet shampoo residues can be foamy or sticky, and steam cleaning often reveals dirt unextracted by shampoos. Since no rinse is performed, the powerful residue can continue to collect dirt after cleaning, leading to the misconception that carpet cleaning can lead to the carpet getting "dirtier faster" after the cleaning.
When wet-shampoo chemistry standards converted from coconut oil soaps to synthetic detergents as a base, the shampoos dried to a powder, and loosened dirt would attach to the powder components, requiring vacuuming by the consumer the day after cleaning.
Dry foam cleaning  involves applying a cleaning foam blanket to the surface area of a carpet immediately after a dry clean. The foam is left to stand for 10 minutes to allow chemical agents to affect the carpet. This method is typically used to remove grease from the surface; some foams have color brighteners, protectants and anti-soiling agents. A dry foam machine consists of a pressure tank in which a solution of water and shampoo is added.
This method is used for water-sensitive carpets, needle felt, and other carpet types whose construction inhibits sufficient water extraction. Vacuum washing  employs a washhead that sprays water without detergent and immediately removes it by suction, creating a swirl of water. This ensures high cleaning performance, extracting the dirt from the carpet to a depth of half an inch.
By immediately reabsorbing the wash water, the drying time is greatly shortened. This method is suitable for intermediate and basic cleaning. Because it does not require cleaning products, it leaves no detergent residue. Vacuum washing has long been in use in Europe, mostly in larger train and bus companies, schools, and historic preservation. The system works on all surfaces which are water resistant carpet, upholstered furniture, wooden floors, stone, plastics.
A great advantage is that this system works without brushes or pads so there is no abrasion on the pile. Other household carpet-cleaning processes are much older than industry standardization, and have varying degrees of effectiveness as supplements to the more thorough cleaning methods accepted in the industry. Vacuum cleaners use air pumps to create partial vacuums to suck up dust and dirt, usually from floors and carpets.
Filtering systems or cyclones collect dirt for later disposal but don't necessarily improve the machines ability to remove dirt from the surface being cleaned. Modern carpet cleaning equipment use rotary vacuum heads and spray jets to deep clean the carpet through hundreds of multi-directional cleaning passes.
Some add steam and agitation. Models include upright dirty-air and clean-air , canister and backpack, wet-dry and pneumatic, and other varieties. Robotic vacuum cleaners have recently become available. Tea leaves and cut grass were formerly common for floor cleaning, to collect dust from carpets, albeit with risks of stains. Ink was removed with lemon or with oxalic acid and hartshorn ; oil with white bread or with pipe clay ; grease fats with turpentine ; ox gall and naphtha were also general cleaners.
Jo-Anne van der Knaap. Algae oil wet or dry extraction? I'm doing research about algae oil as a resource for omega I'm writing a method about the oil extraction from algae.
I found different ways of doing this wet and dry, dry by using algae powder. Which way is better? IMy project is also on algal oil production.
I hope the link below may help. Thank you so much! Far Eastern Federal University. I'm strongly agree with Sk Riyazat Khadim he describe the best way. Because of during heat drying or too long drying or keeping for long time some oil could oxidised.
Algae oil wet or dry extraction?
Wet extraction systems have been in use for some time. Rotoclones, wet scrubbers and more recently dust extractors all require expensive duct-work and create. The emulsifying andfoaming properties of lupin seed protein isolates (LSPI) prepared by wet extraction methods, such as isoelectric precipitation, dialysis and. This study reports on an affordable and sustainable method for the extraction of copper. This was achieved through the use of a wet chemical method which.