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law cbd definition marijuana

fearcom
10.06.2018

Content:

  • law cbd definition marijuana
  • Medicinal Cannabis: History, Pharmacology, And Implications for the Acute Care Setting
  • HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE
  • Cannabidiol can be sourced from both marijuana plants and hemp plants, which are legal in most countries as they contain minor amounts of THC. CBD is the. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid discovered in It is one of some identified cannabinoids in cannabis plants, accounting .. This legislation defined hemp as cannabis containing less than % of THC delta-9, grown within. Thirty-three states have passed medical marijuana laws. Twelve states have enacted CBD-explicit medical laws. It will carve out an exemption for traditional hemp plants, defined as having a maximum of % of THC.

    law cbd definition marijuana

    While there is not enough evidence to suggest routine use of medicinal cannabis for alleviating chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting by national or international cancer societies, therapeutic agents based on THC e. Only recently has the efficacy and safety of cannabis-based medicines in managing nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy been evaluated.

    In a review of 23 randomized, controlled trials, patients who received cannabis-based products experienced less nausea and vomiting than subjects who received placebo. In crossover trials in which patients received cannabis-based products and conventional antiemetics, patients preferred the cannabis-based medicines.

    Cannabis-based medications may be useful for treating chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting that responds poorly to conventional antiemetics. However, the trials produced low to moderate quality evidence and reflected chemotherapy agents and antiemetics that were available in the s and s.

    With regard to the management of neurological disorders, including epilepsy and MS, a Cochrane review of four clinical trials that included 48 epileptic patients using CBD as an adjunct treatment to other antiepileptic medications concluded that there were no serious adverse effects associated with CBD use but that no reliable conclusions on the efficacy and safety of the therapy can be drawn from this limited evidence. In older patients, medical cannabinoids have shown no efficacy on dyskinesia, breathlessness, and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    Some evidence has shown that THC might be useful in treatment of anorexia and behavioral symptoms in patients with dementia. The most common adverse events reported during cannabinoid treatment in older adults were sedation-like symptoms. Despite limited clinical evidence, a number of medical conditions and associated symptoms have been approved by state legislatures as qualifying conditions for medicinal cannabis use. Table 1 contains a summary of medicinal cannabis indications by state, including select disease states and qualifying debilitating medical conditions or symptoms.

    A total of 28 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico now allow comprehensive public medical marijuana and cannabis programs. Medicinal Cannabis Indications for Use by State 10 , 60 , Table adapted with permission from the Marijuana Policy Project; 60 table is not all-encompassing and other medical conditions for use may exist. The reader should refer to individual state laws regarding medicinal cannabis for specific details of approved conditions for use.

    In addition, states may permit the addition of approved indications; list is subject to change. Some of the most common policy questions regarding medical cannabis now include how to regulate its recommendation and indications for use; dispensing, including quality and standardization of cultivars or strains, labeling, packaging, and role of the pharmacist or health care professional in education or administration; and registration of approved patients and providers.

    The regulation of cannabis therapy is complex and unique; possession, cultivation, and distribution of this substance, regardless of purpose, remain illegal at the federal level, while states that permit medicinal cannabis use have established individual laws and restrictions on the sale of cannabis for medical purposes. In a U. Department of Justice memorandum to all U. Cole noted that despite the enactment of state laws authorizing marijuana production and sale having a regulatory structure that is counter to the usual joint efforts of federal authorities working together with local jurisdictions, prosecution of individuals cultivating and distributing marijuana to seriously ill individuals for medicinal purpose has not been identified as a federal priority.

    There are, however, other regulatory implications to consider based on the federal restriction of cannabis. Medical cannabis expenses are not reimbursable through government medical assistance programs or private health insurers. As previously described, the Schedule I listing of cannabis according to federal law and DEA regulations has led to difficulties in access for research purposes; nonpractitioner researchers can register with the DEA more easily to study substances in Schedules II—V compared with Schedule I substances.

    For example, the Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research at the University of California—San Diego had access to funding, marijuana at different THC levels, and approval for a number of clinical research trials, and yet failed to recruit an adequate number of patients to conduct five major trials, which were subsequently canceled. The limited availability of clinical research to support or refute therapeutic claims and indications for use of cannabis for medicinal purposes has frequently left both state legislative authorities and clinicians to rely on anecdotal evidence, which has not been subjected to the same rigors of peer review and scrutiny as well-conducted, randomized trials, to validate the safety and efficacy of medicinal cannabis therapy.

    Furthermore, although individual single-entity pharmaceutical medications, such as dronabinol, have been isolated, evaluated, and approved for use by the FDA, a plant cannot be patented and mass produced by a corporate entity.

    The Schedule I designation of cannabis causes hospitals and other care settings that receive federal funding, either through Medicare reimbursement or other federal grants or programs, to pause to consider the potential for loss of these funds should the federal government intercede and take action if patients are permitted to use this therapy on campus.

    Similarly, licensed practitioners registered to certify patients for state medicinal cannabis programs may have comparable concerns regarding jeopardizing their federal DEA registrations and ability to prescribe other controlled substances as well as jeopardizing Medicare reimbursements.

    Attorney General Eric Holder recommended that enforcement of federal marijuana laws not be a priority in states that have enacted medicinal cannabis programs and are enforcing the rules and regulations of such a program; despite this, concerns persist. The argument for or against the use of medicinal cannabis in the acute care setting encompasses both legal and ethical considerations, with the argument against use perhaps seeming obvious on its surface.

    States adopting medical cannabis laws may advise patients to utilize the therapy only in their own residence and not to transport the substances unless absolutely necessary.

    Canada has adopted national regulations to control and standardize dried cannabis for medical use. The argument can be made that an herb- or plant-based entity cannot be identified by pharmacy personnel as is commonly done for traditional medicines, although medicinal cannabis dispensed through state programs must be labeled in accordance with state laws.

    Dispensing and storage concerns, including an evaluation of where and how this product should be stored e. Inpatient use of medicinal cannabis also carries implications for nursing and medical staff members. The therapy cannot be prescribed, and states may require physicians authorizing patient use to be registered with local programs.

    Despite the complexities in the logistics of continuing medicinal cannabis in the acute care setting, proponents of palliative care and continuity of care argue that prohibiting medicinal cannabis use disrupts treatment of chronic and debilitating medical conditions.

    Patients have been denied this therapy during acute care hospitalizations for reasons stated above. Legislation in Minnesota, as one example, has been amended to permit hospitals as facilities that can dispense and control cannabis use; similar legislative actions protecting nurses from criminal, civil, or disciplinary action when administering medical cannabis to qualified patients have been enacted in Connecticut and Maine.

    Despite lingering controversy, use of botanical cannabis for medicinal purposes represents the revival of a plant with historical significance reemerging in present day health care. Legislation governing use of medicinal cannabis continues to evolve rapidly, necessitating that pharmacists and other clinicians keep abreast of new or changing state regulations and institutional implications.

    Ultimately, as the medicinal cannabis landscape continues to evolve, hospitals, acute care facilities, clinics, hospices, and long-term care centers need to consider the implications, address logistical concerns, and explore the feasibility of permitting patient access to this treatment. Whether national policy—particularly with a new presidential administration—will offer some clarity or further complicate regulation of this treatment remains to be seen.

    The authors report no commercial or financial interests in regard to this article. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List P T v. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Open in a separate window. Access to marijuana through home cultivation, dispensaries, or some other system that is likely to be implemented;.

    Allows either smoking or vaporization of some kind of marijuana products, plant material, or extract. Schedules of controlled substances. Department of Justice; Management of substance abuse: Behavioral health trends in the United States: Office of National Drug Control Policy. Answers to frequently asked questions about marijuana. Medicinal use of marijuana—polling results. N Engl J Med. Kondrad E, Reid A. J Am Board Fam Med. Moeller KE, Woods B. Am J Pharm Educ.

    National Conference of State Legislatures. State medical marijuana laws. Food and Drug Administration. FDA work on medical products containing marijuana. Food and Drug Administration; Mar, A Complete Guide to Cannabis. Park Street Press; Early medical use of cannabis.

    The Marihuana Tax Act of The advisability and feasibility of developing USP standards for medical cannabis. Pharmacopeial Convention; [Accessed August 5, ]. Encyclopedia of Drug Policy. State marijuana laws in map. Comparing cannabis with tobacco—again.

    National Institute on Drug Abuse. Should marijuana be a medical option? MacDonald K, Pappas K. A multi-facet therapeutic target. Care and feeding of the endocannabinoid system: International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. Cannabinoid receptors and their ligands: Current status and prospects for cannabidiol preparations as new therapeutic agents. Zhornitsky S, Potvin S. Cannabidiol in humans—the quest for therapeutic targets. Pharmaceuticals Basel ; 5: Is legalization impacting the way people use cannabis?

    Int J Drug Policy. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of the plant cannabinoids, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, and cannabinol.

    Controlled cannabis vaporizer administration: Plasma delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations and clinical effects after oral and intravenous administration and smoking. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids. Exogenous cannabinoids as substrates, inhibitors, and inducers of human drug metabolizing enzymes: Sativex oral mucosal spray.

    Marinol dronabinol capsules USP prescribing information. Adverse health effects of marijuana use. Association between cannabis and psychosis: Keep off the grass? Cannabis, cognition, and addiction.

    Marijuana and lung diseases. Curr Opin Pulm Med. Cannabis use and risk of psychiatric disorders: Currently, there are more than 40 clinical trials enrolling patients to examine the effectiveness of CBD for a variety of diseases, including substance use disorder, chronic pain, post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD , depression, schizophrenia, and many others.

    Most importantly, CBD is incredibly safe, and not addictive. The most common side effect of high-dose CBD is sleepiness. Some very good medical and scientific research has been conducted for the following conditions.

    Inhibiting the absorption of this compound shunts excess quantities into the bloodstream that in turn reduces pain. In both humans and animal models, CBD has been shown to have a variety of anti-inflammatory properties. Clinical trials have shown that CBD is effective at reducing seizures in children, and the FDA is likely to approve Epidiolex, a pharmaceutical-grade version of CBD for this use, in summer Not enough studies have been conducted to understand this relationship fully.

    In , researchers conducted a comprehensive review to get at the heart of CBD and its intervention of addictive behaviors. These researchers gathered 14 studies, nine 9 of which involved animals, while the remaining five 5 involved humans, to find that CBD may indeed have therapeutic properties on opioid, cocaine, and psychostimulant addiction.

    Further, studies heavily suggest that CBD may also be beneficial in the treatment of marijuana and tobacco addiction. One reason that CBD may be effective as treatment for addictive disorders is its ability to ease the anxiety that leads people to crave drugs like heroin. At sufficient doses mg , CBD can alleviate situational anxiety, such as public speaking. Interestingly, cannabis cultivars, or strains, that are high in CBD and low in THC are better than other cultivars for alleviating depression.

    But when used over a long period of time, any kind of cannabis could make depression worse. There is a massive amount of scientific research being done on CBD right now, and we are likely to see many medical breakthroughs in the next decade. It found that extract taken from whole plant CBD-rich cannabis is therapeutically superior to single-molecule extract.

    The scientists behind this study noticed that science had been utilizing pure, single-molecule CBD, which resulted in a bell-shaped dose-response curve. The study from Israel essentially documented the synergistic effects of whole plant cannabinoid profiles; as noted above, this is the entourage effect.

    The difference here, however, is that this most recent study dove into what extent whole-plant CBD can be more therapeutic than single-molecule CBD extract. Although both hemp and marijuana are cannabis, hemp produces less than 0.

    This means that producing a single 10 mL dose of CBD would require the cultivation and extraction of far more hemp than it would from whole-plant marijuana; thus raising the risk of exposing users to more contaminants. Also, CBD derived from industrial hemp lacks the the incredibly diverse profile of different cannabinoids and terpenes found in whole-plant marijuana.

    CBD derived from hemp boasts a greatly weaker entourage effect. Federal law in the United States prohibits the use of hemp leaves and flowers to make drug products. In this case, the differences between industrial hemp and whole-plant marijuana are far less significant. Consumers should be aware that a handful of hemp products on the market pay lip service to governmental regulations by labeling themselves as hemp, despite containing cannabinoids and terpenoids.

    A potent pain-reliever, Cannatonic hails from Spain and stands as one of the earliest cultivars to be bred for its high CBD content. This cultivar is a cross between MK Ultra and G13 Haze, and it helps relieves anxiety, muscle spasms, pain, and migraines while providing uplifting energy. Cannatonic tends to relax and loosen muscles without locking users to their couches.

    This cultivar was bred by crossing classic landraces from Nepal, Switzerland, and Thailand. It smells of a fresh pine forest dotted with hints of cherry. Harlequin helps mute pain and stress without fogging the mind. This cultivar typically sports a 1: This Sativa-dominant Hybrid smells of musky diesel but refreshes the soul like a warm cup of tea.

    This cultivar is named after the cannabidiol pioneer, Lawrence Ringo. Shortly thereafter, other scientists began testing isolated cannabinoids on lab animals; notably, Walter S. Cannabis made another leap forward in when Israeli scientist Dr. Raphael Mechoulam identified the structure of deltatetrahydrocannabinol, or THC.

    This discovery earned him godfather status of modern cannabis. In February of , Dr. Mechoulam teamed up with South American researchers to publish a study regarding cannabis and epilepsy.

    This study is seen as one of the earliest double-blind studies of CBD on clinical subjects. Mechoulam and his team conducted included 16 people, many of whom were children, who all suffered from severe epilepsy. The results were startling: Every subject who received CBD experienced improvement in their condition with little to no side effects.

    This anticonvulsant study has since proven to be an integral milestone in the world of clinical marijuana research, but largely went unnoticed at the time. In , a group of scientists researched and studied the effects of CBD on anxiety and found that it has potent anxiolytic, or anti-anxiety, properties as well.

    This groundbreaking moment paved the way for public support and lucrative research opportunities.

    Medicinal Cannabis: History, Pharmacology, And Implications for the Acute Care Setting

    In a nutshell, the Farm Bill makes it legal to possess, manufacture, and distribute CBD extracted from all cannabis plants that meet the definition. States where recreational weed is legal: Michigan joins the party . CBD—from the Drug Enforcement Agency's definition of marijuana. eventually loosen laws around the popular marijuana extract CBD. of the bill places industrial hemp — which is defined as a cannabis.

    HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE



    Comments

    dantar23

    In a nutshell, the Farm Bill makes it legal to possess, manufacture, and distribute CBD extracted from all cannabis plants that meet the definition.

    wikarno

    States where recreational weed is legal: Michigan joins the party . CBD—from the Drug Enforcement Agency's definition of marijuana.

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