For patients in the Czech Republic, learning the medical marijuana laws is Laws in the Czech Republic Limit the Medical Cannabis Program. Cannabis in the Czech Republic is illegal for recreational use, but personal possession has been decriminalized since 1 January and medical cannabis has been legal since 1 April Carney, Sean (). " Czech Parliament Backs Medical Marijuana, With a Catch - Emerging Europe Real Time - WSJ". of legal regu- latory regimes for the medical and therapeutic use of Argentina , Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Czech Republic,. Finland.
Laws Czech Cannabis the Medical Medical Marijuana the Republic in How Program Limit
Although European laws have not gone as far as legalizing cannabis, as Colorado or Washington State have in the USA, what has been done has acknowledged that there are serious medicinal uses of cannabis and should go some way to stifling the black market cannabis trade. As more countries in Europe and elsewhere legalize the medicinal use of cannabis, scientific evidence becomes imperative to inform appropriate regulation and prescription. There are certainly concerns about using cannabis in this way, especially in the USA, where the use of therapeutic herbal cannabis-based preparations—marijuana and hashish—has created a largely unregulated market and encouraged abuse.
The establishment of an adequate monitoring system, as for instance in the Italian region of Abruzzo, would help to prevent inappropriate use, verify proper dosage and application and register any problems and side effects. This is not just a matter of consumption, but of administration and dosage.
Indeed, in the majority of the countries where the use of medical cannabis has been legalized, the free cultivation or consumption of cannabis through smoking or eating is still prohibited. Patients should use specific pharmaceutical formulations with defined content and ingredients based on an appropriate treatment plan drawn up by the medical practitioner.
The problem with smoking cannabis is that it does not deliver the drug in a reproducible or predictable dosage and does not provide any therapeutic benefit. In fact, the contrary is true: There is sufficient evidence that marijuana abuse damages the brain—especially among adolescents, whose brains are still developing—and causes cognitive decline, poor attention and memory, and even decreases intelligence. Brain imaging studies have shown that regular cannabis use modifies brain structure, with massive structural abnormalities in the brain's grey matter density, volume and shape, particularly in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala 3.
Perhaps most pertinently to the medicinal use debate, recent studies have also highlighted the risk that the acceptance of medical cannabis could have a dangerous impact on the way that adolescents perceive the risks of cannabis abuse 4. It is therefore essential to clearly separate the medical use of cannabis as a drug delivered in a controlled dose from its recreational abuse through smoking. This would also send an educational message to the public that cannabis, like any therapeutic drug, can have serious side effects if it is not properly prescribed and administered.
For researchers who have spent years studying the therapeutic efficacy of drugs based on cannabinoids and endocannabinoids in neoplastic, neurological, metabolic and inflammatory diseases, as we have, the new laws being introduced open the way for hugely increasing knowledge in this field 5. However, the demonization of cannabinoids in several countries, and the public and regulatory perception that cannabis is merely an illicit drug, has created sufficient prejudice and suspicion to put in place unreasonably stringent drug protocols that hugely disadvantage patients who could benefit from cannabis-derived drugs.
The public acceptance of cannabis for medicinal should therefore be based and nurtured entirely on clinical evidence of its efficacy and safety, as well as its convenience for patients and National Health Systems or agencies. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Jan 9. The fact that more countries legalize the medicinal use of cannabis should not become an argument for unfettered and uncontrolled use.
Maurizio Bifulco and Simona Pisanti. The news updates below concentrate on policies where cannabis is clearly used for recreational purposes. In the highest courts in countries across three continents have asserted that state intervention in the private life of their citizens who wish to grow and use cannabis is not always justified.
The court found that the aims of protecting public health or public security could not justify state punishment of cannabis use in private.
Penalising cultivation and possession for personal use were not contested in this case, and therefore not considered. Constitutional court press release. In South Africa, on 18 September, 10 judges of the Constitutional Court ruled that it was not reasonable to penalise an adult who cultivates, or uses, or possesses cannabis for personal consumption in private. In Mexico, on 31 October, the Supreme Court gave its fifth judgement since stating that penalising private cultivation, possession and use of cannabis and tetrahydrocannabinol was unconstitutional, against the principle of free development of the personality.
Other courts are obliged to follow Supreme Court judgements once five similar rulings have been delivered. Supreme Court press release. All three courts emphasised that any private use of cannabis should not be in the presence of children. The courts also commented on trends in international developments in cannabis policy and use. The court in Mexico stated that it upheld the constitutional principle of free development of personality and considered it was still in line with the Convention.
In the US state of Colorado, use and sale of cannabis for recreational purposes has been legal since January , and it has been commercialised for medical purposes since The main arguments for legalisation were that it would increase law enforcement efficiency, revenue and individual freedom. The state government instructed the state Department of Public Safety to report on key statistics of cannabis-related topics including crime, impaired driving, hospital visits, usage rates, effects on youth.
A second biennial report was released in October The main findings are as follows:. The number of serious crimes of illegal production and sale of cannabis fell considerably between and , when they started to rise again. Cannabis-related organised crime cases varied over the period to but significantly increased between and The number of plants seized in Colorado by the DEA has varied since , from 5 to 40 plants per year.
The number and weight of cannabis products seized by the US postal service has increased every year since The number of seizures of Colorado-sourced herbal cannabis in other states peaked in and declined since, but increasingly more concentrates and edibles are being found. Cannabis-related hospitalisations have increased steadily since Calls to poison centres have levelled off since , when stricter regulation and prevention measures were introduced to control edible products.
According to HKCS, the proportion of high school students reporting trying cannabis lifetime use or reporting past day use did not vary to a statistically significant degree from to The declared objectives of the law are to protect the health of young people, to reduce and deter illicit activities with cannabis, to reduce the burden on the criminal justice system, and to control the quality of cannabis supplied.
The delay between passing and entry into force of the law was to allow the regions to decide on such issues. Canada already has a national law permitting production and use of cannabis for medical purposes since The new law permits cultivation and production by licensed private companies. In most provinces, private citizens may also grow some plants at home. Initial cultivation and production will mainly be by those companies already producing cannabis preparations for medical use.
Producers will usually supply a provincial authority, who then manages distribution to the retail outlets. The number of suppliers in each province varies; while some provinces have reported agreements with only one supplier, there are currently 14 licensed suppliers in Manitoba and 31 in British Columbia. Sales outlets will be regulated at provincial level.
Distribution from producer to outlet will be usually managed by a government-run provincial body, often the body responsible for alcohol liquor distribution.
In some provinces, the outlets will be publicly owned, such as the networks of state liquor shops, in others they will be privately owned. Some provinces intend to limit the number of outlets, others will not. Sales and delivery are also possible online.
Canada already has experience of this with cannabis for medical use being delivered to remote areas. Ontario, the most populous province, will currently only sell cannabis through the government online shop, though physical outlets are expected in spring Herbal cannabis and cannabis oil can be sold, but not edible products containing cannabis, such as cookies and chocolate.
Packaging is expected to be plain and will carry a standardised symbol for THC and health warnings. Health Canada anticipates that cannabis-containing edible products will be permitted within the next year. Since , herbal cannabis and cannabis oils have been offered for open sale in health food shops or specialist shops in several EU countries, including France, Italy, Luxembourg and Austria.
Sales have taken place based on the claim that these products have little or no intoxicating effect and therefore are not controlled under drug laws. Cannabis flowers and extracts usually contain the two cannabinoids THC and CBD, but the percentage of each can vary greatly, by plant variety and by growing technique. THC can cause intoxicating effects, while CBD has been associated with health benefits, though there is little evidence for most conditions that have been studied.
The WHO expert committee on drug dependence recently recommended that pure CBD should not be listed under the drug conventions. The EU common agricultural policy subsidises growing certain varieties of the cannabis plant for industrial uses, provided their THC content does not exceed 0.
The EU also has several directives and regulations that might address the sale of low-THC products, including standardised definitions of medicinal products, herbal medicines, food and food supplements, cosmetics, general product safety etc. As classification is usually decided by national regulatory bodies, depending on the country, a cannabis product could potentially be classified as a medicine, a food or a consumer product.
First, countries differ in their response towards low-THC products. Some countries state that a product containing less than 0. For others, an unlicensed product must not contain any THC at all. In addition, countries have developed different responses towards products containing CBD. There seem to be few quantitative limits to CBD but more conditions. The legality of marketing the product may depend on the source of the CBD, it may depend on the format of the product, and it may depend on how the product is presented.
After the market was legalised in , resident users could register for only one of three ways to obtain cannabis: Cannabis sold in pharmacies initially had a potency of 2. As of June , some kilograms of cannabis had been sold in this way.
Uruguay has a population of 3. The report shows that 35 people are registered to obtain cannabis; 8 by home growing, 24 for pharmacy purchases and 2 as members of 91 clubs averaging 26 members per club. Around two-thirds of those registered for pharmacy purchase are in employment. Eight out of 19 regions in the country have pharmacies selling cannabis.
While local authorities have tolerated the sale of cannabis under certain conditions in these outlets for many years, the supply of the drug to the coffeeshops is not officially permitted. This has created an illicit market in cannabis production and wholesale distribution. In October , the Dutch government declared its intention to permit an experiment on the legal supply of cannabis to coffeeshops to be carried out in up to ten medium to large-sized municipalities.
The trial should examine impacts on public health, crime, public safety and nuisance, and the municipalities should be varied in size and location. On 9 March , the minister of Justice and Security and the minister for Health, Welfare and Sport described the plans for this experiment in a letter to the Dutch parliament. An independent advisory committee, reporting by the end of May , will help to define such details as how the cannabis is cultivated, monitoring and enforcement systems, and the criteria to select municipalities.
After the summer break, the committee will nominate the municipalities for selection. The draft law, required to allow deviation from the drug control act, will be presented to the parliament before the summer break. The draft has already been sent for consultation to key stakeholders including the association of municipalities, the college of attorneys general, and the council for the judiciary. The law will be accompanied by an order in council which will set out the more detailed requirement of cannabis cultivation and sales.
In the Netherlands, an estimated Letter to parliament Dutch Questions to advisory committe Dutch. The law will take effect on 1 July The legislation, however, only permits home growing and personal possession.
Commercial production, distribution and sale are not allowed. The new law permits personal possession of up to 1 ounce Minor breaches and public consumption are civil offences, but chemical extraction e.
A new advisory commission will examine possible commercial models, road safety and education and prevention strategies, and report to the Governor by 15 December The main rationale for legalisation is to combat disparities in enforcement of drug laws towards ethnic minorities. In November , the US state of Maine voted to legalise the cultivation, production, sale, taxation and use of cannabis.
Personal use is now permitted, but a bill to implement the regulations for trade was vetoed on 3 November by the State Governor, Paul LePage. Three months after the vote for legalisation, the state government passed a law LD 88 to permit personal cultivation and use. The same law delayed legalisation of commercial production, retail sales and taxation until February , to allow legislators to finalise administrative rules such as licensing.
Those administrative rules were drafted by the member Joint Select Committee on Marijuana Implementation, in a bill LD that was passed by both state Houses on 23 October This bill has now been vetoed.
In his veto letter , the State Governor cited concerns about:. Most fundamentally though, he was concerned that the bill was in direct conflict with US federal law:. Until I clearly understand how the federal government intends to treat states that seek to legalize marijuana, I cannot in good conscience support any scheme in state law to implement expansion of legal marijuana in Maine.
If we are adopting a law that will legalize and establish a new industry and impose a new regulatory infrastructure that requires significant private and public investment, we need assurances that a change in policy or administration at the federal level will not nullify those investments. In this situation, the provisions of the law of January prevail, and purchase from a retail outlet should become legal from 1 February ; even if licensing details remain undefined. Legislators may submit a new proposal in January As part of the legalisation in Washington State that took effect in July , the state legislature instructed the Washington State Institute of Public Policy WSIPP to publish periodic evaluations looking at factors in at least six named areas.
These should inform a benefit-cost evaluation of the law. The report lists preliminary findings for:. The analysis compares a the different counties within the State, noting per capita cannabis sales; and b Washington State with other similar states. States that allow medical marijuana include: It is important to recognize that these state medical and recreational marijuana laws do not change the fact that using marijuana continues to be an offense under Federal law.
Medical marijuana in the US is controlled at the state level. Per federal law, cannabis, a schedule I drug, is illegal as noted in the Controlled Substances Act, but the federal government, under the previous Obama administration, had stated they would not actively prosecute patients and caregivers complying with state medical marijuana laws. However, use of medical marijuana outside of the state laws for illegal use or trafficking would not be tolerated by state or federal government.
These rules may be changing under Attorney General Jeff Sessions. Political leaders, US government officials, health care providers and medical organizations take differing views of the benefits and risks of medical marijuana.
Proponents state that marijuana has valid medical uses and further research should be pursued, while opponents list concerns about health risks, and the "gateway" effect of marijuana that can lead to more dangerous drug abuse, among other issues. Nonetheless, legalization of medical marijuana continues to be pursued at the state level, with California being the most recent state to legalize recreation use in January Nonetheless, state and federal laws are at odds in the US, currently.
Attorney General Jeff Sessions is a known critic of the cannabis industry and federal oversight of marijuana legalization has now become more strict. On January 4, , the DOJ rescinded this document. Attorneys to enforce the laws enacted by Congress and to follow well-established principles when pursuing prosecutions related to marijuana activities.
Whether the feds will go after the large state-run, legalized recreational or medical marijuana industry, the over 5, mom and pop marijuana shops in the U. The patient can then obtain a medical marijuana card, or qualification, to purchase medical marijuana and associated products from dispensaries. Although the conditions vary from state-to-state, top medical conditions for which patients might use medical marijuana include:.
According to various state laws, medical marijuana can be used for treatment of other debilitating medical conditions, such as decompensated cirrhosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Not all states that approve of medical marijuana have enacted laws to allow its use for all of these conditions. Another difference between states - the amount of marijuana for medical use that can be possessed by the individual patient or primary caregiver varies, but may include dried marijuana and live plants.
In addition, the quality of research studies, or the availability of research, is often limited for some of these conditions. According to data published by the National Cancer Institute, a number of in vitro laboratory , animal, and human studies have looked at the use of cannabinoids deltaTHC, CBD in various cancer uses; however, it's important to remember many studies were small and more research may be needed.
No cannabis marijuana or cannabinoid agent is approved by the FDA for the treatment of cancer. Cannabis is not approved for treatment of any related symptom of side effect of cancer therapy.
Two cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are FDA-approved for the treatment of chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting in patients who have not responded to standard therapy. Animal and human studies have shown that deltaTHC dronabinol taken by mouth can stimulate appetite, although in cancer patients the use of megestrol may be more effective.
However, in patients with AIDS, a clinical trial showed that deltaTHC incerased appetite and reduced weight loss compared to those taking a placebo.
According to the NCI , there are no published studies of the effect of inhaled cannabis on cancer patients. According to NCI , cannabinoid receptors found in brain cells may have a role in controlling nausea and vomiting. Animal studies have shown that deltaTHC and other cannabinoids may act on cannabinoid receptors to prevent vomiting caused by certain types of chemotherapy.
Two cannabinoid drugs are approved in the US for the treatment of anti-cancer treatment chemotherapy nausea and vomiting in patients who have not responded to standard therapy:. Several studies have evaluated the use of inhaled cannabis for chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting, although results were mixed and a there is not enough information to interpret the results.
It is approved outside the US to treat spasticity linked with multiple sclerosis. Nabiximols was shown in a small randomized trial in Spain to treat chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting. The use of cannabinoids or cannabis has been evaluated in the treatment of cancer and nerve pain.
Marijuana has also been used for glaucoma to lower intraocular pressure IOP , but research does not show that marijuana has a better effect than currently approved glaucoma medications.
Studies have shown that smoked, oral or IV use may have an effect on lowering IOP, but the effect is short-lived, possibly only a few hours, which is a major drawback for a condition that requires around-the-clock effect.
Topically applied marijuana derivatives to the eye have not been shown to have an effect. Marijuana in any form is not FDA approved for use in glaucoma. Research suggests it is not only elevated IOP that may lead to a damaged optic nerve causing glaucoma, but also reduced blood flow to the optic nerve.
Marijuana use has the potential to lower optic nerve blood flow, effectively canceling out the benefit of a lowered IOP, according to the American Academy of Ophthalmologists AAO. The AAO does not recommend marijuana or other cannabis products for the treatment of glaucoma.
The medication comes as a liquid oral solution to be taken by mouth. Epidiolex contains cannabidiol, which is a purified drug substance derived from marijuana, but does not lead to a high as might be seen with ingestion of tetrahydrocannabinol THC.
Epidiolex is a Schedule V controlled substance. Epidiolex, taken along with other medications, was shown to be effective in reducing the frequency of seizures when compared with placebo.
The most common side effects with Epidiolex shown in the clinical trials were:. As reported by Hill, there are several studies that have noted cannabinoids are effective in the treatment of symptoms of multiple sclerosis, including painful spasms. A majority of Americans support legalization of marijuana -- 61 percent pro versus 33 percent against -- according to findings from a Quinnipiac University National Poll in August In , voters in Colorado and Washington state passed initiatives legalizing marijuana for adults 21 and older under state law.
The states of Oregon and Alaska, as well as Washington, D. C also voted to approve recreational use of marijuana in November In November , four more states - California, Massachusetts, Maine, and Nevada - voted in recreational marijuana.
On July 1, Vermont's recreational use law came into effect. In , Michigan became the 10th US state to legalize recreational use, but a legalization vote failed in North Dakota. Laws surrounding recreational use varies by state. It is important to note that the federal government still considers marijuana a dangerous drug and that the illegal distribution and sale of marijuana is a federal crime.
The current Trump administration, and in particular the Attorney General Jeff Sessions, is not in favor of marijuana legalization, but so far has not reversed any state's legalization measures. Recreational marijuana is lucrative. Smoking marijuana can make driving dangerous; do not mix the two.
The cerebellum is the section of the brain that controls balance and coordination. In all states, including states that allow recreational marijuana, driving under the influence of marijuana is illegal. However, because THC metabolites can remain in the blood for up to one month or possibly longer , the DUI charge is usually based subjective measures. States differ on the penalties, although an arrest and court date will most likely be involved if the officer deems the person impaired..
First offenses rarely involve long jail time, but may involve probation, community service, a suspended license, fines and fees, and DUI school. The brain is not fully developed until around 25 years of age. Experts note that marijuana use in the young can lead to abnormal brain development. Frequent use of high-potency THC over extended periods of time suggests that there can be negative effects on learning, memory, attention and problem-solving ability, as reported in Pediatrics in October The AAP suggests that doctors urge parents not to use marijuana around children.
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Cannabis policy in the Czech Republic
Patients still have great difficulty acquiring medical marijuana in the Czech Republic, even though it has been legal for that purpose since April 1, This also limits demand currently, as few patients are willing to pay that much. Cannabis is illegal for recreational use, but personal possession has. Although the Czech Republic was part of the Soviet sphere of attitude of society to cannabis use, and show a more repressive and and during the process of drying it, the offender is “producing marijuana” This by-law sets the permitted amount of medical cannabis at 30 grams of dry matter per month. introduced legislation to reform cannabis supply laws, with many possession, or cultivation of medical marijuana' (for more information, see Trumble, passed a medical law, and domestically produced cannabis for the programme was . Netherlands and the Czech Republic, where medical cannabis is.