The plant Cannabis sativa, better known as marijuana, has long been used Most studies on the endocannabinoid system focus on these two. Marijuana has the highest consumption rate among all of the illicit drugs used in the USA, and its popularity as both a recreational and medicinal drug is. After several decades of research, scientists studying the effects of marijuana made several important discoveries. Not only did they identify the active ingredient.
System Endocannabinoid Cannabis and The
In , at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Dr. Lumir Hanus along with American researcher Dr. William Devane discovered the endocannabinoid anandamide. The same team later discovered a second-major endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol 2-AG and went on to uncover the less known endocannabinoids; homo-gamma-lineleoul ethanolamide, docosatetraenoul ethanolamide DEA , and noladin ether 2-AGE. Including N-arachidonoyldopamin NADA , there are over a handful of endocannabinoids that have been identified, along with another handful of G- coupled protein receptors that interact with these endocannabinoids.
In the pursuit of unearthing the metabolic pathways of phytocannabinoids and endocannabinoids, scientists came across an unknown molecular signaling system within the body that is involved in regulating a broad range of biological functions. This system was named the endocannabinoid system ECS. The ECS performs multiple tasks, but the goal is always to maintain a stable environment despite fluctuations in the external environment.
It is the system that creates homeostasis within the body. When an imbalance is detected within our internal environment, the body synthesizes endocannabinoids that interact with the cannabinoid receptors. This stimulates a chemical response that works to return the physiological process back to homeostasis. However, in some cases, there is a deficiency in ECS signaling. This condition is known as Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency. Reasons to as why this condition occurs ranges from our body not synthesizing enough endocannabinoids, our bodies not producing enough cannabinoid receptors, an abundance of enzymes that break down cannabinoids, or outside sources such as foods and medications that decrease ECS signaling.
The phytocannabinoids contained in cannabis can be used to supplement this deficiency. By stimulating and supporting your endocannabinoid system one can find relief from a multitude of illnesses and conditions. Discovery and Isolation of Anandamide and Other Endocannabinoids. New York, New York: British Journal of Pharmacology. APR 05, Currently working with Pharmacannis, a dispensary in Buffalo, NY.
Resided in Northern California for the past 15 years working in the cannabis industry as a farmer, breeder, and chemical analyst. Received a bachelor's degree in biology at Keuka College in NY. I have a passion for research with a focus in the field of endocannabinology. Our Endocannabinoid System and Appetite. The Thanksgiving holiday is a perfect time to discuss science. Particularly, the science of appetite. While the old wives' tale of the tryptophan in tu Flying off the Shelves: Only after a month into the legislation of the use of recreational weed did Canada's marijuana businesses hit a little speed-bump.
Marijuana Linked to Violence? A recent article in the Wall Street Journal suggests that marijuana is not as safe as it seems. The distribution of CB2 receptors is quite different and mainly restricted to the periphery in the immune system cells, such as macrophages, neutrophils, monocytes, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes and microglial cells. Recently, CB2 receptor expression has also been shown in skin nerve fibres and keratinocytes, bone cells such as osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts, liver and somatostatin secreting cells in the pancreas.
The presence of CB2 receptors has also been demonstrated at the CNS, in astrocytes, microglial cells and brainstem neurons Picture 2.
There is evidence of staining with the CB2 antibody of human neurons. The presence of functional CB2 receptors is still debated. Recent evidences suggest that the CB2 receptor mediates emotional behaviours, such as schizophrenia, anxiety, depression, memory and nociception, supporting the presence of neuronal CB2 receptors or the involvement of glial cells in emotional behaviours.
The endocannabinoids are long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from the membrane phospholipids, specifically from the arachidonic acid. The two main endocannabinoids are anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol 2-AG. Once the anandamide has been synthesised in the cell membrane of the stimulated cell, it is released in the hepatic cleft where it joins the cannabinoid receptors. After release, anandamide is transported from the synaptic cleft inside the cell through passive diffusion, or by a selective transporter that can be selectively inhibited by different compounds, such as AM However, this transporter has not been yet identified.
At present, it is postulated that anandamide diffuses passively through the membrane and is then cached in the cytoplasm by the Fatty Acid Binding Protein FABP and transported to the mitochondrion, where the enzyme that catabolises anandamide, FAAH, is located. The most abundant endocannabinoid in the brain is 2-AG. High levels of 2-AG are found in the brain and its concentration is about times higher than anandamide. The synthesis of 2-AG is mediated mainly by the phospholipase C.
The 2-AG reuptake is taking place by similar mechanisms as anandamide. Other endogenous cannabinoids that have been identified are the 2-arachidonylglycerol ether, also called noladin ether, virodhamine, which has been proposed as an endogenous antagonist of CB1 receptor and N-arachidonoyldopamine NADA , a vanilloid agonist with CB1 affinity.
Two more endogenous compounds with cannabinomimethic actions, but without affinity for the cannabinoid receptors, are oleylethanolamide OEA and palmythoilethanolamine PEA.
OEA at high concentrations can reduce food intake from a peripheral mechanism. PEA exerts anti-inflammatory actions blocked by CB2 antagonists, has antiepileptic properties and inhibits the intestinal motility. The endocannabinoid system has unique characteristics differing from other neurotransmitter systems.
First, the endocannabinoids act as neuromodulators that inhibit the release of other neurotransmitters such as GABA the main inhibitor neurotransmitter and glutamate the main exciter neurotransmitter.
The synapses are the communication between two neurons. The presynaptic neuron that is the one that releases the neurotransmitters, and the postsynaptic is the one activated by the neurotransmitters. The endocannabinoids are retrogrades that are released from the postsynaptic neuron. The postsynaptic neuron, in response to a stimulus, synthesises and releases the endocannabinoids in the synaptic cleft stimulated by the cannabinoid receptors on the presynaptic neuron, which inhibits the release of neurotransmitters.
Furthermore, the endocannabinoids are not located in the synaptic vesicles vesicles placed inside the presynaptic neuron which contains the neurotransmitters , and are synthesised on demand from the membrane phospholipids and immediately released in the synaptic clef Picture 1. The main endocannabinoid system's function is the regulation of body homeostasis.
The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in multiple aspects of the neuronal functions, including learning and memory, emotion, addictive like behaviour, feeding and metabolism, pain and neuroprotection. It is also involved in the modulation of different processes at the cardiovascular and immunological levels, among others. The distribution of the CB1 receptors in the brain correlates with the pharmacological actions of the cannabinoids.
Its high density in the basal ganglia is associated with the effects on the locomotor activity already mentioned. The presence of the receptor in the hippocampus and cortex are related to the effects in learning and memory, and with the psychotropic and antiepileptic properties. The low toxicity and lethality are related with the low expression of receptors in the brain stem. The endocannabinoid system interacts with multiple neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, dopamine, GABA, histamine, serotonin, glutamate, norepinephrine, prostaglandins and opioid peptides.
The interaction with these neurotransmitters is responsible for most of the pharmacological effects of cannabinoids. Both synthetic cannabinoids and fitocannabinoids act due to the interaction between the cannabinoid receptors.
The location and distribution of CB1 and CB2 receptors in the immune system, the bone marrow cells and white blood cells, perfectly matches the Cannabis immunomodulatory effects. The presence of CB1 and CB2 receptors in the organs involved in the intake of nutrients and energy balance such as the liver, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, spleen, skeletal muscle and adipocytes, explains the therapeutic action of cannabinoids on the regulation of energy and food balance.
The common sweet cravings resulting from the intake of Cannabis can be explained in the same way.
The legal cannabis movement started in San Francisco in the. While decades of Cannabis prohibition will ferociously debate this claim, this system does indeed exist. It's known as the Endocannabinoid. Find out how the endocannabinoid system produces the body balance In order to consume medical cannabis in a responsible and efficient.