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It is known that a major problem of several medications used in the treatment of clinical anxiety and depression is their effect on sleep architecture. Long-term use of benzodiazepines may also cause reduction of SWS, loss of efficacy in the treatment of insomnia, alterations in electroencephalogram results during sleep Poyares et al.
Likewise, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors SNRIs may interfere with sleep architecture and decrease restorative sleep, leading to increased awakenings, reduced REM sleep, increased REM latency, as well as increased periodic limb movement during sleep Feige et al. Additionally, studies on the anxiolytic, antipsychotic and antiparkinson effects of CBD described no sedation or drowsiness side effects in their volunteers Zuardi et al.
These findings complement the literature on the few significant side effects resulting from the administration of CBD to humans in a wide range of doses, administered chronically or acutely Bergamaschi et al. It seems, therefore, that CBD has an adequate safety profile with good tolerability and does not affect psychomotricity or cognition Hayakawa et al. The relative representativeness of the small sample size and the use of a single dose of CBD can perhaps be regarded as a limitation of our study, as it does not allow the assessment of the effects of chronic treatment with CBD on sleep.
In the study by Chagas et al. Since the effects of CBD are biphasic Zuardi et al. Moreover, monitoring changes in sleep using a conventional polysomnography presents some intrinsic limitations, as it is insufficient alone to detect drug-induced changes of the sleep EEG.
For this purpose, a spectral analysis or a similar procedure is also needed. Conversely, the use of preclinical polysomnography to characterize drug-induced sleep disturbances has been increasingly recommended in the regulatory context Authier et al.
Finally, it is essential to evaluate the effects of CBD in a larger sample and in individuals diagnosed with sleep disorders in addition to healthy volunteers. Despite these limitations, this is the first controlled study to evaluate the effects of CBD on sleep architecture using polysomnography. Although the absence of interference with the sleep cycle is not sufficient for concluding that sleep is not affected, the results obtained contribute for the understanding of the effects of CBD in the modulation of sleep in humans.
We found no differences between CBD and placebo in respect to polysomnographic findings or cognitive and subjective measures in a sample of healthy subjects. Unlike widely used anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs such as benzodiazepines and SSRIs, the acute administration of an anxiolytic dose of CBD does not appear to interfere with the sleep cycle of healthy volunteers.
Future studies should address the effects of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle of patient populations as well as evaluate the chronic effects of CBD in larger samples of patients with sleep and neuropsychiatric disorders. The other authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Front Pharmacol v. Published online Apr 5. Guimaraes , 3 Alan Eckeli , 1, 2 Ana C. Crippa , 4 Antonio W. Zuardi , 1, 2 Jose D. Souza , 1, 2 Jaime E. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Translational Pharmacology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology.
Received Nov 6; Accepted Mar The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Abstract Cannabidiol CBD is a component of Cannabis sativa that has a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic effects in neuropsychiatric and other disorders.
Introduction Cannabidiol CBD , one of the major compounds of Cannabis sativa , has been shown to have several therapeutic effects including antipsychotic Zuardi et al. Open in a separate window. Instruments The following instruments were used: Polysomnography The apparatus used for the polysomnography exams consisted of different devices including electroencephalogram with the international 10—20 system to rule out the occurrence of epileptic seizures , electrooculogram, electromyogram of chin muscles and upper and lower limbs, nasal pressure cannula, oral thermistor, thoracic and abdominal respiratory inductive plethysmography straps, pulse oximetry, electrocardiogram, and snoring and body position sensors.
Drugs Cannabidiol mg , Procedure Subjects were instructed to abstain from alcohol for 24 h and caffeine for at least 24 h before each visit to the laboratory. Table 1 Demographic characteristics. Component Score average 1. Subjective sleep quality 1 2. Sleep latency 1 3. Sleep duration 0 4. Habitual sleep efficiency 1 5. Sleep disturbances 1 6. Use of sleeping medication 0 7.
Table 3 Polysomnographic parameters measured after the administration of CBD and placebo. Discussion We found no significant differences in polysomnography results following the administration of CBD and placebo to healthy volunteers.
Conclusion We found no differences between CBD and placebo in respect to polysomnographic findings or cognitive and subjective measures in a sample of healthy subjects. Interactions of delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol with cannabinol and cannabidiol following oral administration in man. Assay of cannabinol and cannabidiol by mass fragmentography. International Classification of Sleep Disorders , 3rd Edn. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. EEG in non-clinical drug safety assessments: Maximizing sensitivity of the psychomotor vigilance test PVT to sleep loss.
Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa. Effect of benzodiazepine hypnotics on all-night sleep EEG spectra. The effectiveness of cannabinoids in the management of chronic nonmalignant neuropathic pain: Oral Facial Pain Headache 29 7— The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: The anxiolytic effect of cannabidiol on chronically stressed mice depends on hippocampal neurogenesis: Hypnotic and antiepileptic effects of cannabidiol.
Effects of acute systemic administration of Cannabidiol on sleep-wake cycle in rats. Effects of cannabidiol CBD on regional cerebral blood flow. Therapeutical use of the cannabinoids in psychiatry. Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: Cannabidiol in inflammatory bowel diseases: Fluoxetine and sleep EEG: Slow wave sleep induced by GABA agonist tiagabine fails to benefit memory consolidation.
Neuropsychiatric symptoms, quality of sleep and quality of life in patients diagnosed with nasal septal deviation. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis. Neurocognitive consequences of sleep deprivation. Validation of a Portuguese version of the beck depression inventory and the state-trait anxiety inventory in Brazilian subjects.
Circadian and wake-dependent modulation of fastest and slowest reaction times during the psychomotor vigilance task. A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: An update on safety and side effects of cannabidiol: Different effects of nabilone and cannabidiol on binocular depth inversion in Man.
Hypnoticlike effects of cannabidiol in the rat. Anxiolytic-like effect of cannabidiol in the rat Vogel conflict test. The action of sedatives on brain stem oculomotor systems in man.
Chronic benzodiazepine usage and withdrawal in insomnia patients. National Institutes of Health. Efficacy and tolerability of indiplon in transient insomnia. Sleep quality in renal transplant patients: Pharmacological exploitation of the endocannabinoid system: If you make a statement of fact, such as whether a type of treatment does or does not work, state your basis -- such as personal experience or a published study.
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CBD for Insomnia and Better Sleep
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