Learn more about Marijuana uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain Marijuana. reported side effects of medical marijuana include: * bloodshot eyes * depression * dizziness * fast heartbeat * hallucinations * low blood pressure the drug can. Medical marijuana is any part of the marijuana plant that you use to treat health.
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The number of deaths related to prescription opioids, especially synthetic ones like fentanyl, has climbed drastically. More than 64, people in the United States alone died from an opioid overdose in This is due, in large part, to the fact that opioid painkiller prescriptions tend to drop in states with a functioning medical cannabis program. The average doctor in these states also prescribes fewer doses of common mental health medications as well. On average, in states where medical cannabis is legal, doctors prescribe upwards of fewer doses of antidepressants and fewer doses of anxiety medication than in other states.
For many people with chronic conditions, they are limited to a very small number of treatment options. For many, the answer is medical marijuana. Medical cannabis has been used effectively for everything from chronic pain and cancer to multiple sclerosis and ulcerative colitis.
It also opens up options for individuals with multiple diagnoses. Together, these parts work to regulate a number of activities, including mood, memory, sleep and appetite.
It is thought that medicinal cannabis can treat various illness by acting on the endocannabinoid system. A number of people make the claim that smoked cannabis should be considered as a treatment for various medical conditions or even as a cure for cancer. However, there are two major concerns regarding this type of cannabis and this method of administration. Firstly, smoking is a particularly harmful way of taking cannabis, mainly because carcinogenic substances are inhaled directly into the lungs.
Smoking cannabis is not recommended by health authorities, as the smoked form contains at least 50 of the same carcinogens as tobacco. Secondly, the majority of medicines used in Australia are produced under strict conditions: It is important that doctors know that medicines have been tested and that each dose is the same. It is understood that smoked cannabis will not be prescribed in Australia because smoked plant products will not satisfy governmental requirements that enable it to be classed as a therapeutic good.
There is a considerable need for medicines and therapies that can help and alleviate the painful symptoms of a number of illnesses and diseases. An increasing number of studies suggest that medicinal cannabis in the form of oral extracts, sprays or pills can reduce these symptoms and aid in the treatment of some illnesses.
However, as with many other drugs, medicinal cannabis can also cause unwanted side effects, such as difficulty with concentration, dizziness, drowsiness, loss of balance, and problems with thinking and memory. The scheme provides for the import and supply of an unapproved therapeutic good to individual patients on a case-by-case basis.
Legislation to allow for the cultivation of cannabis in Australia for medical or scientific purposes has been passed by the federal government. This involved an amendment to the Narcotics Drugs Act and will allow for cultivation through a national licensing scheme. The Narcotic Drug Amendment Bill provides a legislative framework that will permit cannabis cultivation in Australia for medicinal and related research purposes.
The legislation also ensures that when the cultivation, production and manufacture of cannabis begin, Australia will remain compliant with its international obligations. The Commonwealth will control all regulatory aspects of the cultivation of cannabis for medicinal purposes through one national scheme. Manufacture will be a joint responsibility between the Commonwealth and the states and territories.
Access to any cannabis products manufactured under the scheme will also be a joint responsibility, with supply being controlled by provisions under the Therapeutic Goods Act working in tandem with state and territory drugs and poisons legislation. The Office of Medicinal Cannabis has been established within the Department of Health and Human Services and is responsible for establishing the Victorian medicinal cannabis framework.
The office will work closely with the medical profession as well as patients and families as the scheme is implemented. Read more about the Victorian situation. Only recently has the efficacy and safety of cannabis-based medicines in managing nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy been evaluated. In a review of 23 randomized, controlled trials, patients who received cannabis-based products experienced less nausea and vomiting than subjects who received placebo.
In crossover trials in which patients received cannabis-based products and conventional antiemetics, patients preferred the cannabis-based medicines. Cannabis-based medications may be useful for treating chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting that responds poorly to conventional antiemetics.
However, the trials produced low to moderate quality evidence and reflected chemotherapy agents and antiemetics that were available in the s and s.
With regard to the management of neurological disorders, including epilepsy and MS, a Cochrane review of four clinical trials that included 48 epileptic patients using CBD as an adjunct treatment to other antiepileptic medications concluded that there were no serious adverse effects associated with CBD use but that no reliable conclusions on the efficacy and safety of the therapy can be drawn from this limited evidence.
In older patients, medical cannabinoids have shown no efficacy on dyskinesia, breathlessness, and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Some evidence has shown that THC might be useful in treatment of anorexia and behavioral symptoms in patients with dementia.
The most common adverse events reported during cannabinoid treatment in older adults were sedation-like symptoms. Despite limited clinical evidence, a number of medical conditions and associated symptoms have been approved by state legislatures as qualifying conditions for medicinal cannabis use. Table 1 contains a summary of medicinal cannabis indications by state, including select disease states and qualifying debilitating medical conditions or symptoms.
A total of 28 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico now allow comprehensive public medical marijuana and cannabis programs. Medicinal Cannabis Indications for Use by State 10 , 60 , Table adapted with permission from the Marijuana Policy Project; 60 table is not all-encompassing and other medical conditions for use may exist.
The reader should refer to individual state laws regarding medicinal cannabis for specific details of approved conditions for use. In addition, states may permit the addition of approved indications; list is subject to change. Some of the most common policy questions regarding medical cannabis now include how to regulate its recommendation and indications for use; dispensing, including quality and standardization of cultivars or strains, labeling, packaging, and role of the pharmacist or health care professional in education or administration; and registration of approved patients and providers.
The regulation of cannabis therapy is complex and unique; possession, cultivation, and distribution of this substance, regardless of purpose, remain illegal at the federal level, while states that permit medicinal cannabis use have established individual laws and restrictions on the sale of cannabis for medical purposes.
In a U. Department of Justice memorandum to all U. Cole noted that despite the enactment of state laws authorizing marijuana production and sale having a regulatory structure that is counter to the usual joint efforts of federal authorities working together with local jurisdictions, prosecution of individuals cultivating and distributing marijuana to seriously ill individuals for medicinal purpose has not been identified as a federal priority.
There are, however, other regulatory implications to consider based on the federal restriction of cannabis. Medical cannabis expenses are not reimbursable through government medical assistance programs or private health insurers. As previously described, the Schedule I listing of cannabis according to federal law and DEA regulations has led to difficulties in access for research purposes; nonpractitioner researchers can register with the DEA more easily to study substances in Schedules II—V compared with Schedule I substances.
For example, the Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research at the University of California—San Diego had access to funding, marijuana at different THC levels, and approval for a number of clinical research trials, and yet failed to recruit an adequate number of patients to conduct five major trials, which were subsequently canceled. The limited availability of clinical research to support or refute therapeutic claims and indications for use of cannabis for medicinal purposes has frequently left both state legislative authorities and clinicians to rely on anecdotal evidence, which has not been subjected to the same rigors of peer review and scrutiny as well-conducted, randomized trials, to validate the safety and efficacy of medicinal cannabis therapy.
Furthermore, although individual single-entity pharmaceutical medications, such as dronabinol, have been isolated, evaluated, and approved for use by the FDA, a plant cannot be patented and mass produced by a corporate entity. The Schedule I designation of cannabis causes hospitals and other care settings that receive federal funding, either through Medicare reimbursement or other federal grants or programs, to pause to consider the potential for loss of these funds should the federal government intercede and take action if patients are permitted to use this therapy on campus.
Similarly, licensed practitioners registered to certify patients for state medicinal cannabis programs may have comparable concerns regarding jeopardizing their federal DEA registrations and ability to prescribe other controlled substances as well as jeopardizing Medicare reimbursements. Attorney General Eric Holder recommended that enforcement of federal marijuana laws not be a priority in states that have enacted medicinal cannabis programs and are enforcing the rules and regulations of such a program; despite this, concerns persist.
The argument for or against the use of medicinal cannabis in the acute care setting encompasses both legal and ethical considerations, with the argument against use perhaps seeming obvious on its surface. States adopting medical cannabis laws may advise patients to utilize the therapy only in their own residence and not to transport the substances unless absolutely necessary. Canada has adopted national regulations to control and standardize dried cannabis for medical use.
The argument can be made that an herb- or plant-based entity cannot be identified by pharmacy personnel as is commonly done for traditional medicines, although medicinal cannabis dispensed through state programs must be labeled in accordance with state laws. Dispensing and storage concerns, including an evaluation of where and how this product should be stored e. Inpatient use of medicinal cannabis also carries implications for nursing and medical staff members.
The therapy cannot be prescribed, and states may require physicians authorizing patient use to be registered with local programs. Despite the complexities in the logistics of continuing medicinal cannabis in the acute care setting, proponents of palliative care and continuity of care argue that prohibiting medicinal cannabis use disrupts treatment of chronic and debilitating medical conditions.
Patients have been denied this therapy during acute care hospitalizations for reasons stated above. Legislation in Minnesota, as one example, has been amended to permit hospitals as facilities that can dispense and control cannabis use; similar legislative actions protecting nurses from criminal, civil, or disciplinary action when administering medical cannabis to qualified patients have been enacted in Connecticut and Maine.
Despite lingering controversy, use of botanical cannabis for medicinal purposes represents the revival of a plant with historical significance reemerging in present day health care. Legislation governing use of medicinal cannabis continues to evolve rapidly, necessitating that pharmacists and other clinicians keep abreast of new or changing state regulations and institutional implications. Ultimately, as the medicinal cannabis landscape continues to evolve, hospitals, acute care facilities, clinics, hospices, and long-term care centers need to consider the implications, address logistical concerns, and explore the feasibility of permitting patient access to this treatment.
Whether national policy—particularly with a new presidential administration—will offer some clarity or further complicate regulation of this treatment remains to be seen. The authors report no commercial or financial interests in regard to this article. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List P T v. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Open in a separate window. Access to marijuana through home cultivation, dispensaries, or some other system that is likely to be implemented;. Allows either smoking or vaporization of some kind of marijuana products, plant material, or extract.
Schedules of controlled substances. Department of Justice; Management of substance abuse: Behavioral health trends in the United States: Office of National Drug Control Policy. Answers to frequently asked questions about marijuana. Medicinal use of marijuana—polling results. N Engl J Med. Kondrad E, Reid A. J Am Board Fam Med. Moeller KE, Woods B.
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Medical marijuana is a drug used to treat glaucoma and other conditions. Learn about side effects, drug interactions, dosages, warnings, and more. Medical marijuana, also known as cannabis, is an herbal medication made from the dried buds and leaves of a type of cannabis plant. But, what are the actual side effects of marijuana use - whether you . grower of medical marijuana, Canopy Growth Corporation (TWMJF) and.